https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/issue/feed African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS) 2024-05-10T23:51:50+00:00 Asst. Prof. Dr. Abdussalam Ali Ahmed ajapas.editor@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong>African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS)</strong> is an international, multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed and open-access journal that enhances research in all fields of basic and applied sciences through the publication of high-quality articles that describe significant and novel works; and advance knowledge in a diversity of scientific fields.</p> <p>The <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is owned and published by the African Academy of Advanced Studies (<strong><a href="https://www.aaasweb.com/">AAAS</a></strong>). <strong><a href="https://www.aaasweb.com/">AAAS</a></strong> is the African Academy of Advanced Studies. (<strong><a href="https://www.aaasweb.com/">AAAS</a></strong>) is an academic publisher of open access peer reviewed journals. It publishes all relevant research papers in relevant journals, including economics, business management, social sciences, education, English literature, medical science, technology, agriculture science, life science, math, engineering, computer and electronics, biology, physics, etc. All our journals are international and published every month<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>AJAPAS</strong> welcomes the submission of articles from all aspects of basic and applied science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology and Mathematics), Environmental Science, agriculture, engineering, information technology, petroleum and biomedical sciences from cross-disciplinary fields.</p> <p>Presently, <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is publishing one volume, with 4 issues per year (each issue including about 10-20 articles). All accepted articles are granted free online immediately after publication (doesn't have article processing charges) and the journal doesn't have article submission charges, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles, thus facilitating access to a broad readership.</p> <p><strong>Download important files:</strong></p> <p><strong><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template" href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qI0g0DClI1RnWXyKHTElzaYR1V-UE7hg/edit?usp=share_link&amp;ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- AJAPAS manuscript template in English</a></strong></p> <p><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic" href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1F4Pl3tYkHwe5i68IJxu4-3jF1nLOmKBf/edit?usp=share_link&amp;ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>- AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic</strong></a></p> <p><a title="Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1N5BcsZCgN2uT_PUXhAvINadWpFWG6HTo/view?usp=share_link" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- <strong>Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS</strong></a></p> <p>.</p> https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/731 الممارسات المستدامة لإدارة المخلفات الطبية: دراسة حالة 2024-04-05T23:05:35+00:00 مصطفى أحمد بن حكومة m_hkoma2017@yahoo.com إبراهيم ميلاد التومي m_hkoma2017@yahoo.com عمار سالم الجحيدري m_hkoma2017@yahoo.com عبد الرؤوف محمد الحنبلي m_hkoma2017@yahoo.com محمد علي باني m_hkoma2017@yahoo.com <p>تعد المخلفات الطبية من أكثر أنواع المخلفات خطورة، حيث تحتوي على مواد قد تكون ملوثة أو معدية وتشكل تهديدًا للبيئة والصحة العامة إذا لم يتم التعامل معها بشكل صحيح. وفي ضوء التحديات البيئية والصحية المتزايدة، أصبحت الممارسات المستدامة لإدارة المخلفات الطبية ضرورة ملحة للمؤسسات الصحية.</p> <p>وتمثلت مشكلة الدراسة في التحديات التي تؤثر سلباً على الاستدامة البيئية والصحة العامة، حيث تواجه عمليات إدارة المخلفات الطبية العديد من التحديات والمشاكل التي تؤثر سلباً على الاستدامة البيئية والصحة العامة وغياب الأنظمة والتعليمات الخاصة بجمع المخلفات من أقسام المستشفيات المختلفة.</p> <p>وهدفت الدراسة إلى تحليل الوضع الحالي لإدارة المخلفات الطبية بالمستشفيات القروية والتخصصية (مستشفى إدواو القروي – مستشفى الجمعة التخصصي للنساء والولادة – مستشفى نعيمة للحوادث والطوارئ – مجمع الحوريات) بمدينة زليتن، وإبراز حجم وخطورة المخلفات الطبية، والتعريف بأهمية الممارسات المستدامة لإدارة المخلفات الطبية. ولتحقيق اهداف الدراسة تم استخدام المنهج الاستقرائي التحليلي.</p> <p>وخلصت الدراسة إلى مجموعة من النتائج أهمها: إن متوسط إنتاج المستشفيات القروية والتخصصية بمدينة زليتن يقدر بحوالي (3678) كجم أسبوعياً من المخلفات الطبية، وأن أكثر المستشفيات المدروسة إنتاجاً للمخلفات الطبية هو مستشفى إدواو القروي، حيث بلغ وزن المخلفات الطبية (1088) كجم/أسبوع بنسبة (30%) من إجمالي إنتاج المستشفيات المدروسة، وجاء في المرتبة الثانية مستشفى الجمعة التخصصي للنساء والولادة بوزن (981) كجم/أسبوع وبنسبة (27%)، وفي المرتبة الثالثة مستشفى نعيمة للحوادث والطوارئ بوزن (860) كجم/أسبوع وبنسبة (23%)، وجاء مجمع الحوريات أقل المؤسسات الصحية إنتاجاً للمخلفات الطبية بوزن (749) كجم/أسبوع. وكشفت نتائج الدراسة أن أفراد الطاقم الطبي من أطباء وتمريض وفنيي مختبر بحاجة للتدريب فيما يتعلق بتعاملهم مع المخلفات، خاصة أن معظم أفراد الطاقم الطبي لم يتلقوا أية دورات تدريبية بهذا الشأن. وأوضحت نتائج الدراسة أن عمّال النظافة الذين يتعاملون مع المخلفات الطبية لا يميزون المخالفات الطبية من حيث مخاطرها، ولا يتبعون إجراءات السلامية المهنية أثناء تعاملهم مع المخلفات الطبية. كما اقترحت الدراسة الممارسات المستدامة لإدارة المخلفات الطبية تمثلت في (التصنيف السليم – التخلص المناسب - التدوير وإعادة التدوير - التعقيم الآمن – الحد من المخلفات – التدريب والتوعية – المراقبة والمراجعة - التعاون المشترك – وتكنولوجيا المعلومات والابتكار).</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/733 Internet of Things-Based Smart Energy Meter for Monitoring Energy Consumption 2024-04-08T01:34:23+00:00 Ahmed Salem Daw Alarga ahmedar82.as@gmail.com Abdussalam Ali Ahmed abdussalam.a.ahmed@gmail.com Elhadi Elfitory Algarai ahmedar82.as@gmail.com Abdulgader Alsharif abdulgaderalsharif@gmail.com <p>Control and monitoring systems across all industries now include the Internet of Things (IoT) as a core component. This paper presented a smart energy meter using IoT, which measures the load voltage (V) and current (I) values as well as the phase difference (α) between V and I that are used to determine the power factor (pf). The energy consumed is calculated based on the values of I, V and P(w). ESP32 board is used to process the sensor signals as well as it acts as a server that connects to the internet and has a web page to remotely monitor the loads connected to the substation. A web page is designed for each substation so that all web pages are within a website for monitoring electrical loads connected to substations. Each webpage contains details about substation V, I, pf, frequency and energy consumed.</p> 2024-04-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/748 An efficient Finite Shear Deformable Beam Element for Extensional-Bending Coupled Vibration of Antisymmetric Laminated Beams 2024-04-20T16:53:55+00:00 Mohammed Ali Hjaji m.hjaji@uot.edu.ly Hassan Mehdi Nagiar m.hjaji@uot.edu.ly <p>An exact one-dimensional finite beam element for extensional-bending coupled vibration analyses for antisymmetric composite laminated beams under various harmonic axial bending forces is developed in this study. The dynamic coupled equations and related boundary conditions are derived from Hamilton’s variational principle. The formulation is based on Timoshenko beam theory and accounts for the effects of shear deformation caused by bending and translational and rotary inertia. It is also captured the effects of Poisson’s ratio and structural extensional-bending coupling coming from composite material anisotropy. From the resulting coupled field equations, the closed form solutions are exactly obtained. A set of shape functions is then developed based on the exact solutions of the coupled equations and is utilized to formulate a finite beam element. The new beam element has two nodes with six degrees of freedom per node and successfully captures the coupled extensional-bending static and steady-state dynamic responses of antisymmetric composite laminate beams under harmonic forces. Several examples are performed for antisymmetric cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite beams to investigate the effects of transverse shear deformation, and fiber orientation angle on coupled natural frequencies, quasi-static and steady state dynamic responses. Results based on the present finite element formulation are assessed and validated against other well-established finite element and exact solutions available in the literature.</p> 2024-04-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/749 Characterization of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel 304L by Utilization of Distinct Filler Materials Welded by TIG Method 2024-04-20T16:58:11+00:00 Murad A. Debeski mariammorgham@yahoo.com Maryem M. Morghem mariammorgham@yahoo.com Adel M. Faraj Daw mariammorgham@yahoo.com Taher M. Alabani mariammorgham@yahoo.com Omaima M. Alkubat mariammorgham@yahoo.com <p>Austenitic stainless steel is a type of steel that contains chromium and nickel. These steels are widely used in various engineering industries because they possess improved mechanical properties, especially at high temperatures. This study emphasizes the significance of utilizing different filler wire electrodes to enhance the microstructural morphologies and improve the mechanical properties of welded joints. The experimental setup involved joining AISI 304L plates with a thickness of 3mm using the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) metal arc welding process. Two types of electrodes, ER2209 and ER308, were employed. To analyse the chemical composition of the austenitic stainless steel plates, spectrometer analysis was conducted. This ensured the confirmation of the chemical composition of the plates before welding. The TIG welding process was carried out using a TIG machine with constant parameters of current and voltage</p> <p>Results:&nbsp; the results indicated that the microstructural investigation revealed the formation of δ-ferrite and γ-austenite in the weld (welded by ER2209 and ER308 filler). The higher δ-ferrite content was found more in ER2209 weld zone. Whereas samples welded by ER308 filler showed the columnar structure in the weld zone. Relatively, The weld joint produced with ER2209 electrodes revealed optimum UTS value and YS value of 677 and 625 in N/mm<sup>2</sup> respectively, ER2209demonstrated better mechanical properties, while the weld joint produced with ER308 had superior ductility, also optimum hardness values of 411.9HV for HAZ and 490.72HV for Fuzion zone obtained with ER2209 electrode.</p> <p>Welds with both electrodes should have better mechanical properties than the base metal. The author commented that the filler wire (ER2209) exhibited better tensile properties than ER308wire due to a sufficient amount of ferrite, allotiomorphic and austenite in the form of wedge-shaped widmanstatten and as intergranular precipitates in the weld zone were found.</p> 2024-04-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/752 Efficient Removal of Multiple Heavy Metals from Simulated Wastewater using Combined Carbonized Palm Shell and Rice Husk Adsorbents in Multi-Column System 2024-05-02T18:33:05+00:00 Alsadek Ali Alguail asbshish@elmergib.edu.ly Ali H. Al-Eggiely asbshish@elmergib.edu.ly Ali S. Ebshish asbshish@elmergib.edu.ly <p>This research study amid to develop a hybrid-modified adsorbent from carbonized palm shell and rice husk to remove heavy metal components from simulated wastewater using multi-bed column adsorption. Physical treatment for the adsorbents was done before conducting the experiments. Removal of 13 heavy metal components were investigated in this work and the adsorption performance was compared to that of single bed column adsorption. Six types of adsorbents, including one pure blended rice husk adsorbent, one pure carbonized palm kernel shell adsorbent, and four hybrid adsorbents with different mixing ratios (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%wt) of blended rice husk and carbonized palm kernel shell were used in this study. Surface morphology analysis was conducted using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) for each adsorbent, and adsorption performance was evaluated by area under the graph analysis. The results showed that cadmium, copper, vanadium, antimony, and zinc were effectively adsorbed by the hybrid adsorbent compared to single adsorbents. The adsorption capacity was increased in multi-layer bed adsorption, and the hybrid adsorbent with multi-bed layer column performed better than single-layer bed column. In conclusion, a hybrid adsorbent of mixing of rice husk and carbonized palm shell and applying multi-bed layer column adsorption contributed to enhanced adsorption performance of removing multiple heavy metals from wastewater.</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/753 Effect of the Shape of Steel Fibers on Drying Shrinkage of Concrete 2024-05-02T18:39:21+00:00 Lamen Sryh Lssryh@elmergib.edu.ly Nurdeen Altwair Lssryh@elmergib.edu.ly Muftah Sreh Lssryh@elmergib.edu.ly <p>This paper presents the experimental results of tests that were conducted to consider the effect of the shape of steel fibers on the drying shrinkage strains of concrete. Three different&nbsp;types of steel&nbsp;fibers&nbsp;differing&nbsp;in&nbsp;their&nbsp;shape (straight, hooked-end and crimped) and aspect ratios (l/d= 45, 65 and 80) were added to the&nbsp;concrete mixes&nbsp;with&nbsp;a volume content of (V<sub>f</sub>= 1%). The main objective of this investigation was to clarify how the shape and aspect ratio of steel fibers can restrain the shrinkage strains of the concrete. Small prisms (75×75×200mm) were cast for six different concrete mixes and cured for 28 days, after which they were tested for up to 90 days. In general, the results showed that there were considerable reductions in drying shrinkage strains when the steel fibers were added to the concrete. The addition of crimped steel fibers led to the greatest decrease in shrinkage strain, by 22%, and the straight type recorded the lowest decrease 10%, in comparison with the plain concrete. In terms of the aspect ratio, it was observed that with increased diameters of the steel fibers, which decreased the aspect ratio, the strain caused by drying shrinkage was reduced.&nbsp;</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/755 Improvement of Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel AISI 316L by Electrical Discharge Machining Process 2024-05-09T02:30:35+00:00 Dr. Abdulaziz Moftah Abodena azizabodena@gu.edu.ly <p>The manufacturing industries are using more high-strength, high-hardness materials as a result of technological advancements. More sophisticated techniques including electro-discharge machining (EDM), ultrasonic machining (USM), electric chemical machining (ECM), and laser machining are gradually replacing conventional industrial processes in the machining of these materials. By selecting the right machining parameters to efficiently control the amount of material removed, EDM can create intricate and precise parts with ease. Larger and deeper discharge craters are produced by rough machining conditions because a significant amount of the melted material is removed, even though EDM can achieve accurate dimensions and fine surface integrity under finishing conditions. This study aims to identify the best process parameter settings for electro-displacement machining (EDM) of stainless steel AISI 316L when the material is processed on a rough surface. FORM 2-LC machine was used for the trials, and the Taguchi approach was applied. The Taguchi approach is utilized to design the experimental setup, examine how each parameter affects the machining characteristic, and forecast which EDM parameter is best. The process parameters that have a significant impact on the performance attributes and the percentage contribution of surface roughness are examined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Controlling the level of the machining variables is generally found to enhance the average surface roughness. For instance, when the current is at its lowest, pulse on is at its medium, and pulse off is at its maximum, the optimal value of roughness can be achieved.</p> 2024-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/756 Investigation of Steady State Features in Emitters Classification 2024-05-09T19:00:54+00:00 Enas S. Muhammed judmalo@yahoo.com Aysha Ali judmalo@yahoo.com <p>The security of the communication network has become an important issue. Because of most wireless communication networks are exposed to different types of penetrative attacks such as stray, spoofing, and interaction of communication signals. Radio Frequency (RF) Fingerprinting has provided a promising solution for communication network security. In this study, RF fingerprinting of steady state potion of Bluetooth (BT) has been applied to solve this problem. Set of Bluetooth (BT) signals has been collected from different mobile phones to generate a preliminary raw data set. Successive of preparation processes applied to the collected BT signal data set to generate signals’ features data. These processes are converting signals from text to digital, cantering and normalizing the digital BT signals, determination of steady sate portions, and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) along with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). By applying HHT, and EMD to the signals Time Frequency Energy Distributions (TFED) are obtained. By means of the signals’ energy envelopes and the signals’ steady state, and their TFEDs, signals’ features are extracted. The extracted features represent the input data set of classifiers. A learning machine technique is applied to classify and identify the transmitter device. Part of data set is used to learn the classifiers, while the rest of the data is used to test the classifiers performance. The performance of the classifiers is evaluated for different levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The results of this study demonstrate the usability of steady state of RF fingerprinting for BT signals at physical layer security of wireless networks, and the effectiveness of the applied processes and introduced classifiers.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/757 Development of Hybrid Data Security System using LSB Steganography and AES Cryptography 2024-05-09T20:30:03+00:00 Seddeq E. Ghrare seddeq@jgu.edu.ly Maisem A. Abouras seddeq@jgu.edu.ly Ibrahim A. Akermi seddeq@jgu.edu.ly <p>With the rapid advancement in communication and information technologies, the volume of data shared online has witnessed exponential growth. Consequently, securing sensitive and confidential information has become imperative. Various techniques, including steganography, coding, and cryptography, are employed to protect such data. In this paper, we propose an efficient method that combines&nbsp;Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptography&nbsp;with&nbsp;Least Significant Bit (LSB) image steganography. We begin by concealing the secret data within a cover image using the LSB technique. The steganographic image is created by embedding the secret data in the least significant bits of pixel values. Next, we apply the AES algorithm to encrypt the steganographic image, providing a higher level of security. The strength of our system lies in the dual application of cryptography and steganography. Cracking this cryptosystem requires breaking both the encryption and decryption keys, and extracting the hidden data which is considered difficult to achieve. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed system achieves superior security and better steganographic image quality.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/758 Morphological features and distribution of Loureedia jerbae (El-Hennawy, 2005) (Araneae: Eresidae) in Libya 2024-05-10T23:51:50+00:00 Hamida S. Khbaish abdulhamed.etriieki@gu.edu.ly Hoda M. Elmareme abdulhamed.etriieki@gu.edu.ly Abdulhamed M. Etriieki abdulhamed.etriieki@gu.edu.ly <p>Seven male specimens (one immature and six adults) of a rare species of <em>Loureedia jerbae</em> (El-Hennawy, 2005), are recorded for the first time in Libya, representing the first record of this species outside of Tunisia. Illustrations and a description are provided. Only the most recent adult of the specimens captured in October/November of 2019 to 2022 was examined, identified and described. Although Libya has one of the least recorded spider species in the Mediterranean region, it is promising to reveal more undiscovered and undocumented species through extensive research in this large country.</p> 2024-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024