African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS) https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas <p><strong>African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS)</strong> is an international, multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed and open-access journal that enhances research in all fields of basic and applied sciences through the publication of high-quality articles that describe significant and novel works; and advance knowledge in a diversity of scientific fields.</p> <p>The <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is owned and published by the African Academy of Advanced Studies (<strong><a href="https://www.aaasweb.com/">AAAS</a></strong>). <strong><a href="https://www.aaasweb.com/">AAAS</a></strong> is the African Academy of Advanced Studies. (<strong><a href="https://www.aaasweb.com/">AAAS</a></strong>) is an academic publisher of open access peer reviewed journals. It publishes all relevant research papers in relevant journals, including economics, business management, social sciences, education, English literature, medical science, technology, agriculture science, life science, math, engineering, computer and electronics, biology, physics, etc. All our journals are international and published every month<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>AJAPAS</strong> welcomes the submission of articles from all aspects of basic and applied science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology and Mathematics), Environmental Science, agriculture, engineering, information technology, petroleum and biomedical sciences from cross-disciplinary fields.</p> <p>Presently, <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is publishing one volume, with 4 issues per year (each issue including about 10-20 articles). All accepted articles are granted free online immediately after publication (doesn't have article processing charges) and the journal doesn't have article submission charges, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles, thus facilitating access to a broad readership.</p> <p><strong>Download important files:</strong></p> <p><strong><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template" href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qI0g0DClI1RnWXyKHTElzaYR1V-UE7hg/edit?usp=share_link&amp;ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- AJAPAS manuscript template in English</a></strong></p> <p><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic" href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1F4Pl3tYkHwe5i68IJxu4-3jF1nLOmKBf/edit?usp=share_link&amp;ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>- AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic</strong></a></p> <p><a title="Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1N5BcsZCgN2uT_PUXhAvINadWpFWG6HTo/view?usp=share_link" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- <strong>Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS</strong></a></p> <p>.</p> en-US ajapas.editor@gmail.com (Asst. Prof. Dr. Abdussalam Ali Ahmed) hamzakhlifa2009@gmail.com (Dr. Hamza Khalifa) Fri, 05 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Assessment of Historical and Projected Droughts at Siliana Watershed Catchment (Northern Tunisia) https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/663 <p>Drought is one of the complex weather events affecting water resources and socio-economic conditions in arid environments that would be most exacerbated by climate change. Drought assessment can be useful in implementing strategies and measures to mitigate drought. This study focuses on the potential use of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) based on precipitation and the Martonne Aridity Index (MAI) based on temperature to reproduce the meteorological and hydrological droughts observed in the Siliana watershed. The determination of these indices was evaluated for different time scales (monthly, seasonal, biannual, and annual) during the period 1960–1989, considered as the reference period, and climate projections to 2041–2070, as a mid-term period for climate change. Thirteen rain stations were selected for this work, spread throughout the Siliana basin. The calculation of SPI at different times was used to provide drought characterization maps using inverse distance interpolation. The SPI analysis shows a good agreement with the drought episodes. SPI was also used to study the temporal evolution of drought and its severity. The most severe droughts in the basin occurred during the 1980s–89. The intensity of droughts was mild to moderate, despite the presence of severe to extreme droughts in 1987.</p> Abir Mlayah, Ahmed Skhiri, Slaheddine Khlifi Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/663 Fri, 05 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of ADO.NET and Entity Framework Performance Evaluation in Database Operations https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/672 <p>This paper aims to compare the performance of ADO.NET and Entity Framework in various database operations, including insert, update, delete, and retrieve. The study investigates the execution times of these operations and analyzes the findings to determine the efficiency of each technology.</p> <p>The research findings reveal that ADO.NET consistently outperforms Entity Framework in terms of execution time for insert, update, and delete operations. ADO.NET demonstrates faster execution times, indicating its effectiveness and efficiency in handling these database tasks. However, in the retrieve operation, Entity Framework unexpectedly demonstrates superior performance, suggesting its efficacy in retrieving data.</p> <p>These results emphasize the importance of considering the specific requirements and performance characteristics of ADO.NET and Entity Framework when choosing the appropriate technology for different database tasks. Organizations and developers need to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each technology based on their specific needs.</p> <p>Further research and analysis are necessary to delve deeper into the underlying factors contributing to the performance differences observed in this study. This research provides valuable insights into the performance comparison of ADO.NET and Entity Framework and serves as a foundation for future investigations in this area, facilitating informed decision-making in database technology selection.</p> Abdullah Abdalsalam Abdasameea, Tahr Salem Daduch, Husayn Mansour Isbeeqah, Hadeeyah Mohammed Shakeeb Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/672 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Using Aspen Plus Program to Design and Enable the Cracking of Acetone and the Manufacture of Highly Pure Acetic Anhydride https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/673 <p>In order to convert acetone into acetic anhydride, a system that can break down acetone and decompose it into chitin and methane under specific operating conditions of temperature and pressure is required. The produced chitin must then react with acetic acid to produce acetic anhydride.</p> <p>This system consists of a plug-flow reactor (PFR), where the acetone is first broken down into chitin and methane at 762 °C and 1.8 atm, and a column of RadFrac (RECTIF), which separates the chitin from the methane and the leftover acetone. The chitin and acetic acid reaction, which results in the generation of acetic anhydride, is then continued by adding a continuously stirred tank reactor. The design is then assessed using the program V9 Aspen Plus.</p> Ruwida Abu Aisha Idres, Manal Ahmed Erteeb, Abdulsatar Salih Kareem Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/673 Fri, 12 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Cytogenetic Effect of two species of Rubia plant (Marrubium sp) on genetic material of the dividing onion (Allium cepa L.) Cells https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/674 <p>The object of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity for aqueous extracts of two species of rubia plant (<em>Marrubium vulgare</em> &amp; <em>Marrubium alysson</em>) using onion plant (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) as regards its efficiency as a bioassay to measuring chromosome aberrations. Which it was the growing root tip cells were treated with different concentrations of aqueous extract (stock,10-1,10-3) with control for different exposure times (4, 12, 24 hours). We focused on the changes in mitotic index, mitotic chromosomal behaviour and the amount of DNA in treated cells. The obtained results indicate that all aqueous extracts of rubia plant can cause different mitotic changes with approximate degrees of reduction in mitotic index, changes in DNA amount and production of a large number of mitotic abnormalities. These changes depend on concentration and duration of treatment. The obtained abnormalities were grouped in two classes – physiological and clastogenic. The physiological class was the most common one, which included: early condensation, stickiness in chromosomes, C-metaphase, multipolar and laggards and clastogenic class including bridges, chromosome fragmentation and micronucleus. The increase in DNA amount in treated samples is suggested to be a result of the accumulation of treated cells in G2 phase. And blocking them from reaching M phase explains the inhibition of the mitotic index (MI).</p> فوزية مفتاح حمد الجازوي, سميرة فرج محمد بوحجر, فوزية رجب القربولي Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/674 Fri, 12 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 دراسة على مرض تبقع أوراق الخروب وأثر العوامل البيئية في انتشاره بالجبل الأخضر- ليبيا https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/675 <p>أجريت هذه الدراسة خلال شهر مارس عام 2022 في منطقتي البيضاء والوسيطة بالجبل الأخضر ليبيا على مرض تبقع أوراق الخروب، حيث بلغت نسبة الإصابة 87.2% بمنطقة البيضاء و95.5% بالوسيطة في حين بلغت شدة الإصابة 43.4% بالبيضاء و 46.1% بالوسيطة، وتم دراسة العوامل البيئية (حرارة-رطوبة النسبية) حيث بلغت درجة الحرارة (13.06،8.38) البيضاء، الوسيطة على التوالي وبلغت الرطوبة النسبية (70.47،75.74) البيضاء الوسيطة على التوالي، وأشارت النتائج الي وجود علاقة بين العوامل البيئية وتطور المرض وذلك من خلال حساب معامل (r) بيرسون الي وجود علاقة طردية قوية مع درجة الحرارة ووجود علاقة عكسية قوية مع الرطوبة النسبية والارتفاع عن مستوى سطح البحر.</p> إيهاب علي زعطوط, نوارة علي محمد Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/675 Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 دراسة بعض الخواص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لعينات من الماء المستخدم في بعض المخابز في مدينة ترهونة https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/683 <p>تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحديد جودة المياه المستخدمة في بعض المخابز في مدينة ترهونة- ليبيا، وذلك من خلال دراسة بعض الخواص الفيزيائية والكيميائية، حيث تم تجميع 6 عينات عشوائياً من الماء المستخدم في صناعة الخبز في المدينة وأخذت العينات من وسط المدينة حيث أعلى كثافة سكانية، وقد خضعت هذه العينات إلى مجموعة من الاختبارات. فباستخدام الطرق الحجمية تم قياس تركيز أيون الكلوريد والعسرة الكلية TH، أما درجة الحموضة pH والموصلية EC &nbsp;بالإضافة إلى الأملاح الذائبة الكلية TDS فتم قياسها باستخدام جهار محمول صمم لهذا الغرض، وأظهرت نتائج الاختبارات لعينات الماء المدروسة أن قيمpH &nbsp;تراوحت بين 7.63 و6.91 بمتوسط .257 والتي كانت ضمن الحدود المسموح بها حسب المواصفات الليبية ومواصفات&nbsp; منظمة الصحة العالمية WHO ، و كذلك الحال بالنسبة لقيم &nbsp;TDS&nbsp; المقاسة، &nbsp;فقد وقعت ضمن الحدود الموصي بها فيما عدا العينة رقم 6 التي تجاوزت الحد المسموح به، و قد&nbsp; تراوحت النتائج &nbsp;بين mg/l 1429 و 11mg/l بمتوسط 757.83 mg/l ، أما قيم الكلوريد فقد تراوحت بين mg/l 114.8 و mg/l 14.9 بمتوسط 80.82&nbsp; و سجلت العسرة الكليةTH &nbsp;قيماً تراوحت بين mg/l 80 و mg/l 25 بمتوسط&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;60.33 mg/l والتي وقعت أيضا في الحدود المسموح بها حسب منظمة الصحة العالمية و القياسات الليبية، أما بالنسبة الى قيم EC المقاسة والتي تراوحت بين mC/Sµ2177 و mC/Sµ 23 وبمتوسط mC/Sµ 1305 فقد وقعت العينات في الحدود المسموح بها لمياه الشرب، و كان للعينة رقم 6 أعلى قيمة وتعد بذلك مياه عالية الملوحة حسب مواصفات المياه المستخدمة في صناعة الخبز، وقد يؤثراستخدامها على شكل و طعم الخبز الناتج.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> حليمة عبد السلام عبد الله, جودية جبريل صقر, زينب مفتاح خليفة Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/683 Fri, 26 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A bibliometric analysis on artificial intelligence-based irrigation modeling techniques over the period of 1997-2023 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/684 <p>A bibliometric analysis was performed over the period 1997–2023, to pinpoint important trends, emphasis, and geographic distribution of international irrigation modeling research using new intelligence-based approaches. We mined the data for this study from the databases of the online version of the Web of Science. The data was analyzed using the Excel program, and the bibliometric mapping was performed using the VOSviewer software. A total of 1627 articles met the required criteria. The findings indicated that the number of articles had increased rapidly over the past five years and that English was the prevalent language (≈100%). Researchers in 99 countries have published in this field of research. China ranked first with 401 articles (24.7%), followed by the United States of America with 276 articles (17.0%). Egypt and Saudi Arabia are two of the top 10 countries in the world for research on the use of artificial intelligence in irrigation modeling. These articles were published in 423 journals; Agricultural Water Management was the most productive journal (86 articles, 5.3%), followed by Computers and Electronics in Agriculture (82, 5.0%). The most productive author is Kisi Ozgur from Turkey (43 articles, 2.6%). Taking into account all the institutions working on irrigation modeling (2026 institutions), Egyptian Knowledge Bank was ranked first (75 articles, 4.6%), followed by Northwest A&amp;F University (China) (69 articles, 4.2%). Artificial neural networks and machine learning were the most commonly used intelligence-based techniques for irrigation modeling. Reinforcement learning was the least popular technique for irrigation modeling, which could be due to its complexity and data requirements.</p> Ahmed Skhiri, Khaled Ibrahimi, Achouak Arfaoui Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/684 Fri, 26 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Hill 2-Cipher with Python https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/685 <p>This research paper focuses on the utilization of the Hill 29 cipher to encrypt short sentences using symbols and spaces between words. The Hill 29 cipher relies on linear algebra and number theory concepts. The paper deals with matrix multiplication and inverse matrix, as well as working with the modulo 29 system. The mathematical formulas of the Hill 29 cipher are presented, along with the selection of a suitable key that meets certain conditions to ensure the effectiveness of the encryption process. The cipher is applied to a sentence consisting of 13 characters and three symbols, including spaces between words, and the encryption is successfully achieved. To verify the effectiveness of the encryption, the deciphering of the obtained crossed symbols was performed. The results confirmed that the key is necessary to reconstruct the original formula with its symbols and spaces. The key is considered as a password and is represented by a 2x2 matrix. The original formula with its symbols and spaces was successfully restored, thereby proving the effectiveness of the Hill 29 cipher. It can be relied upon, provided that the appropriate key selected conditions are met. At the end of this research paper, we used a high-level, general-purpose, and very popular programming language which is called Python (latest Python 3) to ensure and get fast results without a classical manual mathematical calculation to encrypt, decrypt sentences by a special code written in Python.</p> Noura A. A., Raiga A. A., Fouad S. A. Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/685 Fri, 26 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Recycling of Waste Plastic to Produce Alternative Synthetic Fuel Via Pyrolysis Process https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/695 <p>Waste plastic is considered the third after natural gas and crude oil in terms of energy consumption in power plants. Despite the increase in waste plastic around the world, the major challenge for sustainable development is the elimination of environmental pollutants through ecologically friendly alternatives. Unlike incineration, pyrolysis produces no poisonous or environmentally detrimental emissions. In this study, a pyrolysis technique via catalyst was used to transform waste plastic into oil in an effort towards an environmentally beneficial way. The pyrolysis has been conducted in the absence of oxygen and at a temperature of about 350 °C. The system understudy consists of plastic garbage collected from a variety of sources including households, hotels, and markets. The garbage is sorted according to classification family into categories to represent the following polymers; polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP). The study showed the successes of using the pyrolysis method to recover fuel oil from the systems understudy. Among the systems, waste PP exhibited a yield value of about 89% followed by LDPE and HDPE with 65% and 53% at 420 °C, respectively. Generally, the produced fuel oil has shown comparable results similar to that of common petroleum products.</p> Amhemmad Aboueqeelah Masoud, Mohamed Baqar Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/695 Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 دراسة لأهم البنيات الرسوبية الأولية في الصخور الفتاتية بوادي قريم (غنيمة) شمال غرب ليبيا https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/697 <p>تتضمن هذه الورقة دراسة لأهم وأغلب البنيات الرسوبية الأولية في الأحجار الفتاتية التابعة لتكوين أبوشيبة بعمر (الترياسي)&nbsp; المتكشف في وادي قريم بمنطقة (غنيمة) بالقرب من مدينة الخمس، شمال غرب ليبيا.</p> <p>أجريت دراسة وصفية حقلية للبنيات الرسوبية الأولية للرواسب الفتاتية بمنطقة الدراسة بهدف معرفة تصنيف هذه البنيات . ومعرفة نوع الرواسب السائد&nbsp; أثناء وبعد فترة الترسيب وبالتالي التعرف علي بيئة الترسيب.</p> <p>اتضح من هذه الدراسة ان تكوين أبوشيبة الفتاتي في وادي قريم يمتاز بوجود العديد من البنيات الرسوبية الأولية و المتمثلة في البنيات قبل الترسيب مثل (قنوات المجاري القديمة واسطح عدم التوافق) وبنيات أثناء الترسيب مثل (التطبق المصمت،التطبق المترقق،التطبق المستوي، التطبق المتقاطع المستوي والمتقاطع الحوضي والتطبق المتقاطع الإسفيني ،التطبق المتدرج، وعلامات النيم) وبنيات بعد الترسيب مثل (التشققات والتقلصات والتطبق المطوي) كل هذه البنيات أشارت إلى سيطرة الرواسب النهرية في الصخور الفتاتية التابعة لتكوين أبوشيبة.</p> عبد السلام مفتاح المشيخي, فتحي بلعيد غانم, عبد الله محمد الهيلي, رمضان احمد النعيري, عمر عثمان أبوهجار Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/697 Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Innovative Remediation Strategies for Tackling Groundwater Pollution: A Comparative Analysis https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/698 <p>Groundwater pollution poses a pervasive environmental challenge in Alwahat, Libya, necessitating a comprehensive investigation into innovative remediation strategies. This study meticulously examines cutting-edge approaches to groundwater remediation, assessing their comparative efficacy within the unique hydrogeological context of Alwahat. Utilizing a combination of field investigations, water sampling, and laboratory analyses, the research identifies the specific pollutants affecting the groundwater and evaluates the performance of emerging remediation technologies. The comparative analysis encompasses traditional methods alongside advanced strategies such as electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, and nanoremediation. Results reveal the nuanced effectiveness of these approaches, considering factors like cost, sustainability, and adaptability to local conditions. Findings from this study contribute valuable insights into tailoring remediation efforts to the specific challenges faced by Alwahat, facilitating informed decision-making for environmental policymakers and practitioners. As the global demand for sustainable water management escalates, this research serves as a crucial reference for mitigating groundwater pollution in arid regions, emphasizing the importance of context-specific innovation in environmental remediation practices.</p> Dr. Osama Asanousi Lamma Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/698 Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Proposed Machine Learning Model Using Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm to Predict the Remaining Useful Life of cutting tools by monitoring sound or temperature measurements https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/702 <p>The story of industrial optimization centers around advances in reducing waste generation and lowering costs. Any industrial institution needs to constantly optimize their production processes in order to gain competitive advantage over its competitors in the industry. One of the challenges manufacturing is to monitor and minimize the gradual failure of cutting tools. The remaining useful life (RUL) of a cutting tool must be used carefully to ensure precision of surface finish, since tool wear can cause damage to cutting tool and scraping machined.</p> <p>This paper presents a research project to monitor and optimize the life of the cutting tool during turning process. Machine tool data was collected from sets of experiments to estimate parameters of the modified Taylor’s equation using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) non-linear least squares algorithm. The LM nonlinear results are used as data structure for a proposed machine learning model to alarm the factory to replace tool before reaching the end of life. In this study, the LM nonlinear estimation results were compared to linear least squares solutions of the linearized form of the extended Taylor equation. The LM nonlinear least squares model showed better fitting results. In this study, the cutting tool temperature is also recommended as other techniques to teach machine to monitor the RUL cutting tools.</p> Muamar M. BenIsa, Abdusalam Imhmed K. Al Khwaji, Mustafa O. Hakoumah Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/702 Sat, 17 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Optimizing Turbo Code Performance: Analyzing the Impact of Free Distance https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/703 <p>The performance of Turbo codes, a robust error correction method, is influenced by various factors. This study specifically explores the pivotal role of free distance in Turbo code performance, a crucial parameter defining error correction capabilities. Employing an extensive simulation framework encompassing realistic channel models and decoding algorithms, we scrutinize the impact of varied free distance values on Turbo codes' overall efficacy.</p> <p>Our investigation spans a spectrum of free distance values, evaluating their influence on both bit error rate (BER) and frame error rate (FER) metrics across additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels, mirroring practical communication scenarios. The outcomes underscore a clear correlation: augmenting free distance enhances error correction, lowering BER and FER. Yet, this improvement incurs escalated decoding complexity, necessitating more iterations for higher free distance values.</p> <p>Additionally, we delve into diverse interleaver designs' effects on Turbo code performance across varying free distances. Our findings illuminate certain interleaver configurations that enhance error correction capacities, even with lower free distance values. This emphasizes the significance of optimizing interleaver design to bolster performance under specific channel conditions.</p> <p>This study offers crucial insights into how free distance influences Turbo code performance, elucidating the trade-off between error correction capabilities and decoding complexity. These insights empower researchers and engineers to make informed decisions while designing and implementing Turbo codes in real-world communication systems.</p> Sabriya Alghennai Salheen, Najat Abohamra, Abdussalam Ali Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 https://aaasjournals.com/index.php/ajapas/article/view/703 Sun, 18 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000