African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS) <p><strong>African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS)</strong> is an international, multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed and open-access journal that enhances research in all fields of basic and applied sciences through the publication of high-quality articles that describe significant and novel works; and advance knowledge in a diversity of scientific fields.</p> <p>The <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is owned and published by the African Academy of Advanced Studies (<strong><a href="">AAAS</a></strong>). <strong><a href="">AAAS</a></strong> is the African Academy of Advanced Studies. (<strong><a href="">AAAS</a></strong>) is an academic publisher of open access peer reviewed journals. It publishes all relevant research papers in relevant journals, including economics, business management, social sciences, education, English literature, medical science, technology, agriculture science, life science, math, engineering, computer and electronics, biology, physics, etc. All our journals are international and published every month<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>AJAPAS</strong> welcomes the submission of articles from all aspects of basic and applied science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology and Mathematics), Environmental Science, agriculture, engineering, information technology, petroleum and biomedical sciences from cross-disciplinary fields.</p> <p>Presently, <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is publishing one volume, with 4 issues per year (each issue including about 10-20 articles). All accepted articles are granted free online immediately after publication (doesn't have article processing charges) and the journal doesn't have article submission charges, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles, thus facilitating access to a broad readership.</p> <p><strong>Download important files:</strong></p> <p><strong><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template" href=";ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- AJAPAS manuscript template in English</a></strong></p> <p><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic" href=";ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>- AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic</strong></a></p> <p><a title="Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- <strong>Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS</strong></a></p> <p>.</p> en-US (Asst. Prof. Dr. Abdussalam Ali Ahmed) (Dr. Hamza Khalifa) Mon, 02 Jan 2023 22:15:26 +0000 OJS 60 Observation the Serum Magnesium Level During Second and Third Trimester Pregnant Women <p>Magnesium is one of the major electrolytes; Magnesium deficiency is common, especially among pregnant women which plays an important role in pregnancy for the formation of new tissues and for cell multiplication in a growing fetus and frequently overlooked in critical illness, leading to an adverse clinical outcome if not monitored regularly particularly in pregnant women. This study was conducted to observe the serum magnesium level during pregnancy because magnesium deficiency in pregnant women will leads to life threatening complications for mother as well as their babies. This observational study was conducted in the department of gynecology, Al Wahda Hospital.&nbsp;Derna, Libya. The inclusion criteria of the study were pregnant women with 20-46 years of age, had second and third trimester of pregnancy. The informed consent was taken from all participants participated in the study and the grouping was made according to serum magnesium level, trimester of pregnancy. The blood sample collected for serum Magnesium level and sent to laboratory for analysis. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 11.00. Total of 50 patients were selected in this study. We have observed high prevalence of hypomagnesemia 44 % among pregnant women in second and third trimester. Moreover, we found no association between serum magnesium levels and the subsequent development of hypertension during the pregnancy, as a result of non-significant p &gt; 0.05. However, there are mild significant direct correlation of hypomagnesemia with hypotension but this relationship illogical and this hypotension due to other courses and most previous studies as we too suspect hypomagnesemia may lead to hypertension.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tawfeg A. Elhisadi, Akrahm M. Saleh Habil, Azza M. Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 02 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Dental Staff Practices and Awareness of Microbiological Contamination of Water in Dental Units in Tripoli, Libya <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate awareness of dentists of microbiological contamination in Dental Units (DUs). <strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-section survey was carrying out in nine government hospitals and three privates’ dental clinics in a Tripoli city of Libya. Data was gathered over a 16-months period (from April 2021 to end of July 2022) using an especially designed survey. SPSS software was used for data analysis and the appropriate statistical tests were applied at (p value set at 0.05). <strong>Results:</strong> A total of the 204 surveyed dentists, 116 (56.7%) were females and 88 (43.3%) were males. They age between 26 - 57 years. It was pointed out that all of the enrolled dentists (100.0%) had knowledge about the causes of contamination of dental chair units (DCUs). Moreover, it was found that the majority of them did not perform the following practices: allowing water to flow out of the air/water syringes, allowing water to flow outside handpieces, covering light handles with disposable plastic sheets, covering head cushions with disposable plastic sheets, changing medical masks after each patient, wearing protective glasses, and disinfecting protective glasses after each patient, (90.2%, 88.2%, 89.7%, 90.2%, 88.2%, 89.2%, 88.7%, respectively).<strong>Conclusions:</strong> It can be concluded from this study that: dentists had adequate knowledge about the causes of contamination of dental chair units (DCUs) and mean to prevent them. Yet their practices were found to be suboptimal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eman Muftah Elzouki, Najah Ahmeda Ibrahim, Ashraf Saad Elzer Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 02 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Heavy Metals in Women's Dyed Hair Samples in the South of Libya <p>Heavy metals apparent toxicity to humans is a result of long term or extreme level exposure to pollutants like cosmetics and hair dyes. In this study, the concentrations of some toxic metals have been measured in different hair samples dyed by products sold at local markets in Taraghun, Libya. Five different brands used by eight ladies. Hair samples were prepared by acid digesting using Microwave oven. The heavy metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in hair samples were evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP- MS. The sample's concentration of heavy metals ranged from (1.18- 4.18 ppm) for Arsenic, (15.22- 3729ppm) for barium, (0.002 -1.91 ppm) for cadmium, (2.08- 5.80ppm) for chromium, (13.0-34.9ppm) for copper, (4.19-52.8ppm) for lead, and (109.6-258.6 ppm) for zinc. High levels of toxic metals could put-up potential health hazard to consumers such as skin problems or cancer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Salha Ali Fatah, Ayiman Ahmed Mustafa, Wafa Khalleefah Amhimmid Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 02 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrophotometric Determination of Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride Using Peak Area <p>The determination of triflouperazine hydrochloride in pure and dose forms has been developed using a simple spectrophotometric approach. Triflouperazine HCl interacted with sulfanilic acid through oxidative coupling. The area under the peak between the two wavelengths of 482-601 was measured and the estimate range was 0.5-100 µg/mL with a coefficient of 99.97 and RSD=1.9498. The method was applied to estimate Triflouperazine HCl in tablets with satisfactory results.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Ali Mohammad Hussein, Nabeel S.Othman Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 02 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents <p><strong>Background:</strong> The prevalence of <em>Helicobacter pylori </em>has declined over recent decades due to improved sanitation, socioeconomic development, and better living conditions; however, its prevalence remains high in the developing world <em>H. pylori </em>has infected nearly 50% of the population worldwide, with rates of 35%–90% depending on population diversity and geographic area.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The objectives of this study are to study the H<em>. pylori </em>infection to children by identifying seroprevalence of <em>H. pylori </em>in pediatric patients.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The data was collected from the records of privet lab in Derna city where the sample collected from children who came to the in order to investigate for H.pylori infections.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total, 200 children—89 boys (44.5%) and 111 (55.5%) girls were enrolled in the study.</p> <p>Of the 200 children studied, 167 (83.5%) were living in Derna (urban area) and 33 (16.5%) in Umarzam, Alqba and AinMarah (rural area), 12(6.0%) in Umarzam, 13(6.5%) in Alqba and 8(4%) in Ainmarah. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in children was 37.5%</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This infection is largely acquired during early childhood and the infection increased with age. Traditional diagnostic tools such as endoscopy and serology can be too invasive for children noninvasive urea breath test Analyzed group included 111 girls and 89 boys between 3years and 15years (mean age 9).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahmoud Al-Hosni, Malak Adel Alsheikh, Malak Meloud Elhasady Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 04 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Agriculture: A Literature Review of Social, Economic and Education Trends <p>Agriculture is the main source of food in the world. Stable agricultural sector ensures food security for countries, and it is the most important domain in the economic and social development of any country. With the increase in population density, the need for food increases, which leads countries to find quick solutions to meet the food needs of their population and provide security. And the world today is facing the challenge of global greenhouse gas pollution, Therefore, digital agriculture is considered necessary and inevitable in the near future, especially with the tremendous technological development in various technical and economic fields, knowing that traditional agriculture is financially costly due to the absence of modern technologies that provide accurate information and digital statistics that markets and production process need, while Relying on digital farming techniques will inevitably contribute to the development of local production at a lower cost, which will contribute to the high competitiveness of local agricultural production and thus achieve structural and sustainable economic growth, and farmers urgently need to prepare to embrace the coming digital change and&nbsp;&nbsp; must increase or acquire new skills and capabilities in the field of information and communication technology. This paper points out the gap on how to build the current body of knowledge about digital agriculture. With the aim of bridging this gap, our paper presents a review of the digital agriculture literature that helps realize the importance of enhancing research capacity and socioeconomic transformation by enhancing the connection with agricultural research knowledge in the field of agricultural informatics and the impact of these technological innovations on society.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahlam A. skib, Laila S. Mousay Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 10 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Self-Care Practice and Its Associated Factors in Diabetic Patients <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Since diabetes is a lifelong disorder that has no cure, patients' lack of participation in the treatment process is one of the reasons for the failure to achieve the desired results in diabetes care. Therefore, the disease involves self-care behaviors by patients throughout their lives. Role of self-care practice is crucial to keep the disease under managed and prevent complications.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 200 diabetic patients in Derna City northeastern of Libya. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The analysis and interpretation of data was in term of descriptive statistics. Chi–square test was used to assess the disease-related characters.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study showed that diabetes is more prevalent in women than in men. The participants were of age 12 to 83 years and the mean age was of 54.58 (± 13.58). The study also showed that 64% of participants had no difficulties in the practice of self-care while 36% did not practice any self-care activities. About 61.50% of participants had health problems and disease complications. The study indicated a significant association between regular self-monitoring of blood sugar, which is one of the most important self-care practices and the onset of disease complications (P &lt; 0.05). About 74% of the participants did not undergo any diabetes education, which justifies the lack of a role for self-care in some of the participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There is an immense need of dedicated self-care behaviors in multiple domains, including food choices, physical activity, proper medications intake and blood glucose monitoring from the patients. Diabetes education is important but it must be transferred to action or self-care activities to fully benefit the patient.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hafed Idris Zaatout, Fatima Al-Zahra Ben Arous Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 أهمية زراعة محصول أعلاف البونيكام <p> </p> <p>يعتبر البونيكام حديث المعرفة بالمناطق الجنوبية وفي عموم ليبيا وبداء انتشار زراعته وعلى نطاق ضيق في سنة 2016 م</p> <p>ونتيجة لنقص الاعلاف في ليبيا بفصل الصيف وبسنوات الجفاف اتجه الفلاحين الي البحث عن محصول اقتصادي دو انتاجية وفوائد غذائية عالية والتي من بينها محصول البونيكام، فهو ومن خلال الدراسة والابحاث التي أجريت عليه حتى الان به عدد من الميزات والتي من اهمها إنتاجيته العالية في وحدة المساحة (من 350 الي 450 بالة تبن جاف للهكتار) وطول عمرة بالأرض الزراعية (من 7 الي 10 سنوات) ويتحمل درجة الملوحة العالية والحرارة الشديدة وقلة استهلاكه للمياه، وقليل الاصابة بالآفات، وارتفاع نسبة البروتين فيه (16 ـ 22%).</p> <p>ومن خلال البحث لا نعتقد بأن البونيكام بديل او أفضل من البرسيم، فلكل محصول منهما ميزات وعيوب، لذا من الافضل ان لا تخلو اي مزرعة من المزارع المخصصة لإنتاج الاعلاف من محصول البونيكام الي جانب البرسيم ومحاصيل الاعلاف الأخرى.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> صالح على محمد بريكاو, البغدادي على سلطان Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 15 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Trends on Carbon Footprint and Climate Change Research: A Bibliometric Study from 2000 to 2022 <p>In recent years, global scientific interest in Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis to mitigate Climate Change (CC) has significantly increased. The present work aims to apply a bibliometric study in order to analyze the research trends in the field of carbon footprint and their contributions in climate change during the period 2000-2022.&nbsp; Our analysis based on the WoS database, based on 3459 articles, and revealed that scientific research on carbon footprint and their contributions in climate change is a relatively recent thematic of research which appeared in the last two decades.&nbsp; Although the number of publications has grown over the years, scientific production is still limited and evolves much slower in many countries. USA, China, UK, Australia and Germany are the leading research production in this field totalizing together over 60% of the total scientific production.</p> <p>The main topics addressed in the scientific literature under this thematic are related to life cycle assessment followed by greenhouse gases emissions and sustainable development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Faten Ellouz, Amal Barkouti Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 17 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 استخدام بعض المضافات الطبيعية في إنتاج ألواح التمر مرتفعة الطاقة والقيمة الغذائية <p>هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى تحضير ألوح التمر الغذائية عالية الطاقة والقيمة الغذائية. تضمن البحث تحضير خمسة عينات من ألواح التمر الغذائية بمضافات غذائية مختلفة مثل المكسرات، الفواكه المجففة، النعناع، اكليل الجبل، الشوفان، السمسم وجوز الهند، وذلك باستخدام تمور صنف دقلة نور. تم تقييم العينات من حيث المكونات التقريبية والجودة الميكروبية ومحتوى الطاقة والتقييم الحسي. أشارت أهم نتائج هذه الدراسة إلى ارتفاع القيمة الغذائية خاصة في نسب البروتين (%6.31) والدهون (%2.96) في العينات المحضرة، والكربوهيدرات في العينة المضاف إليها الفواكه المجففة (74.39 %)، مما انعكس على زيادة محتوى الطاقة المتحصل عليه من البروتين والدهون والكربوهيدرات حيث بلغ أعلاها (25.64 % و26.64%، 297.54%) على التراتب. النتائج المتحصل عليها أكدت ايضاً ارتفاع كبير في نسبة الألياف (17.1%) في العينة المحتوية على السمسم وجوز الهند. أثبتت نتائج التحليل الميكروبي أن معظم العينات كانت خالية من البكتيريا والخمائر والفطريات، وأكدت نتائج التقييم الحسي تفضيل المقيمين لألواح التمر الغذائية من حيث اللون، الطعم، النكهة والقبول العام. أوصت الدراسة بالاستفادة من فائض التمور في الصناعات التحويلية، مثل إنتاج ألواح التمر الغذائية عالية الطاقة والقيمة الغذائية. كما أوصت بإدخال ألواح التمر الغذائية في النظام الغذائي لطلاب المدارس والعسكريين والشرطة والنساء في الشهور الأخيرة من الحمل والمرضعات كخيار صحي ومغذي بديل للحلويات مرتفعة السكريات دون أي مغذيات أخرى.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> هاجر محمد صالح عبد الله, قمر فتحي العيادي أونيس, مرام خيري طروم Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 21 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Biochemical Study of Blood Serum and Seminal Plasma of Patients with Oligospermia <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study began in September 2021 and was extended in September 2021 and extended until May 2022. (172) samples of blood serum and (70) samples of seminal plasma were collected after instructing the patient. Abstain from sexual intercourse for 3 consecutive days. Samples were obtained from Al-Salam Teaching Hospital and specialized laboratories in Mosul city. Samples were divided into two groups: A control group and Oligospermia patients were diagnosed by specialized doctors. The samples were classified between the groups based on the general semen analysis by CASA device.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study included measuring the biochemical parameters of serum and seminal plasma for both control and patients groups, which included: estimating the concentrations of vitamins C, E, and D, measuring glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), measuring some salts and minerals such as calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium(K), and chloride (Cl), as well as measuring the concentrations of some trace elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co), and estimating some proteins such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), albumin and total protein concentrations.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study showed that there were significant decrease in the concentration of vitamins C, E, D, and in Zn and GSH concentrations; we noted a significant increase in the concentration of MDA, and in PSA concentration in blood serum of patients group compared to the control group.&nbsp; It was also shown on seminal plasma that there was a significant decrease in the concentration of Na, K, Ca and albumin, while there was a significant increase in Cu, Co and in the concentration of total protein of oligospermia patients compared to control group. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ghayth Sinan M. Agha, Saba Zeki M. Al-Abachi, Mohammed R. Khedhr3 Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 22 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000