African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS) <p><strong>African Journal of Advanced Pure and Applied Sciences (AJAPAS)</strong> is an international, multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed and open-access journal that enhances research in all fields of basic and applied sciences through the publication of high-quality articles that describe significant and novel works; and advance knowledge in a diversity of scientific fields.</p> <p>The <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is owned and published by the African Academy of Advanced Studies (<strong><a href="">AAAS</a></strong>). <strong><a href="">AAAS</a></strong> is the African Academy of Advanced Studies. (<strong><a href="">AAAS</a></strong>) is an academic publisher of open access peer reviewed journals. It publishes all relevant research papers in relevant journals, including economics, business management, social sciences, education, English literature, medical science, technology, agriculture science, life science, math, engineering, computer and electronics, biology, physics, etc. All our journals are international and published every month<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>AJAPAS</strong> welcomes the submission of articles from all aspects of basic and applied science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology and Mathematics), Environmental Science, agriculture, engineering, information technology, petroleum and biomedical sciences from cross-disciplinary fields.</p> <p>Presently, <strong>AJAPAS</strong> is publishing one volume, with 4 issues per year (each issue including about 10-20 articles). All accepted articles are granted free online immediately after publication (doesn't have article processing charges) and the journal doesn't have article submission charges, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles, thus facilitating access to a broad readership.</p> <p><strong>Download important files:</strong></p> <p><strong><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template" href=";ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- AJAPAS manuscript template in English</a></strong></p> <p><a title="AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic" href=";ouid=101738608010581765457&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>- AJAPAS manuscript template in Arabic</strong></a></p> <p><a title="Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">- <strong>Author’s Declaration Form of AJAPAS</strong></a></p> <p>.</p> en-US (Asst. Prof. Dr. Abdussalam Ali Ahmed) (Dr. Hamza Khalifa) Wed, 05 Apr 2023 04:43:30 +0000 OJS 60 تقدير تركيز الكادميوم في أنسجة وأعضاء ثلاثة أنواع من الأسماك المجمعة من ميناء الصيد بصبراتة / ليبيا <p>أصبح تلوث مياه البحر بالمعادن الثقيلة مشكلة خطيرة في هذا القرن بسبب وجود هذه المعادن في النفايات الزراعية ومياه الصرف الصحي والمخلفات الصناعية والتي تدمر النظم الإيكولوجية المائية حيت تم اكتشافها بشكل خاص في أعضاء الأسماك مما يهدد سبل عيش الإنسان. تضمنت الدراسة تقدير تركيز الكادميوم في الكبد والخياشيم واللحم لثلاثة أنواع من الأسماك القاعية والسطحية ذات القيمة الاقتصادية والاكثر استهلاكا وهي السردين، الكوالي والشلبة التي تم جمعها من ميناء الصيد صبراتة، بهدف معرفة تركيز عنصر الكادميوم في أجسام هذه الأسماك وانتقالها داخل السلسلة الغذائية ومن ثم مدي تأثيرها على صحة الانسان. وأظهرت الأسماك قيد الدراسة أطوال تتراوح بين (15-25.2 سم) وبأوزان تتراوح بين (24.2-261 جم). كما أوضحت النتائج بان التركيز الأدنى للكادميوم وجد في اللحم بينما كانت الكبد هي العضو الذي أظهر أعلى تركيز. ومن خلال النتائج المتحصل عليها لوحظ تفاوت في النتائج فكان تركيز عنصر الكادميوم في انسجة الكبد والخياشيم واللحم لسمك السردين كالتالي 14.032±1.786) / 3.946±0.268 / 0.66±0.069 μg/g) على التوالي. وأما في كبد وخياشيم ولحم سمك الشلبة فقد كان التركيز 3.555±0.163) / 2.616±0.248 / 0.64±0.038 μg/g) على التوالي. اما سمك الكوالي فكان تركيزه (10.687±0.899/ 3.546±0.144 / 0.78±0.043 μg/g) في الكبد والخياشيم واللحم على التوالي. وقد اختلف مستوي الكادميوم بشكل معنوي بين أنواع الأسماك وأعضائها. وكان تركيز الكادميوم في نسج وأعضاء الأسماك يتبع الترتيب التنازلي الآتي: الكبد &gt; الخياشيم &gt; اللحم، مما يجعل الأسماك دليلا حيويًا جيدًا لدراسة التلوث بالمعادن الثقيلة. ولوحظ أن تركيز الكادميوم في كل عينات اللحم كانت ضمن الحدود المسموح بها حسب التشريعات الدولية (WHO) للكادميوم.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> آمال عمر التائب بلق, حامد أحمد مفتاح العريفي, طارق أبوالقاسم زهمول Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 05 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Application of some stability criteria of stability for the Spring equation <p>This study aimed to investigate the stability of the equation for energy motion of spring using two criteria, namely Routh_Hurwitz and Mikailove, and compare between them. discuss one of the physical applications of the differential equation, which is the issue of the spiral spring and its waning and non-diminishing vibrations. study its stability by imposing certain conditions so that we get a second-order equation and homogeneous.obtianin stability the diminishing vibratory motion of the spring is conserving energy and stability the differential equation Motion for spring as well as the diminishing vibratory motion of the spring is not conserving energy in the first criterion and instability the diminishing vibratory motion of the spring is conserving energy for tow cases in the second</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Thair Younis Thanoon, Zaynab Hussein Mohanned Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 05 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bioenergy: Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications and Future of Biofuels <p>Bioenergy is a promising energy source, by 2040, the estimated increase in global energy demand over present levels is about 28%. In terms of generating fuels, either solid or liquid. To mitigate human climate change, biofuels can replace fossil fuels. Emissions of greenhouse gases. Yet, evidence that biofuels are generated in a sustainable manner should be the foundation for any policy decisions about them. To this goal, life cycle assessment (LCA) offers details on the environmental effects linked to the manufacturing of biofuels. Here, we examine developments in biomass conversion to biofuels and their effects on the environment. through life cycle analysis. Gasification, combustion, pyrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis pathways, and fermentation are examples of processes. Gasification, combustion, and pyrolysis are examples of low temperature thermochemical processes, which occur below 300 °C, and high temperature processes, which occur above 300 °C. In contrast to gasification, which operates at temperatures between 800 and 1300 °C, pyrolysis operates at a relatively lower temperature of up to 500 °C. We concentrate on the following topics: 1) the benefits and drawbacks of the thermochemical and biochemical conversion routes of biomass into various fuels, as well as the possibility of integrating these routes for better process efficiency; 2) methodological approaches and key findings from&nbsp; studies on biomass to biofuel conversion pathways published from ; and 3) social, economic, and environmental trends and knowledge gaps in biomass conversion into biofuels using thermochemical and biochemical methods. The circular economy is hopeful about the convergence of hydrothermal and biochemical routes of bioenergy</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahlam Skaib, Rema Zedan Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 05 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 التقدير الكيميائي والكشف الميكروبي للمشروبات الغازية المحلية <p>هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى تقدير بعض المحتويات في أنواع من المشروبات الغازية المحلية والكشف عن الميكروب فيها , جمعت &nbsp;&nbsp;6أنواع مختلفة من المشروبات الغازية بطريقة عشوائية من أسواق مدينة الجميل, أوضحت أهم النتائج أن محتوى الرماد قد تراوح ما بين% 0.01±0.355 &nbsp;في عينة الكوكاكولا و 0.49±6.042% في عينة السفن آب, أما درجة الحموضة والرطوبة كانت النتائج مطابق للمواصفات القياسية الليبية في كل العينات وتراوحت النسب ما بين0.00±0.046 &nbsp;و0.00±0.225 % &nbsp;و 1.8±85.07و% 2.0±88.69 علي التوالي, أما المواد الصلبة الذائبة فقد كانت أعلى قيمة في الشاني 0.28±14g/100ml واقل قيمة في سفن اب 0.75±11.3 g/100ml, ونتائج الأس الهيدروجيني &nbsp;PHكانت من ضمن الحدود المسموح بها, وأثبتت نتائج التحليل الميكروبي خلـــو العينات مــــن البكتيريا والخمائر والفطريات, ومن خلال ما تم التوصل إليه ولضمان سلامة المستهلك نوصي بمتابعة تحليل خواص المشروبات الغازية المصنعة محلياً والمستوردة منها وأتباع نظام غذائي صحي لما لها من تأثير كبير علي الصحة.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> راضية البوراوي مصباح, أميرة إسماعيل كعال, إسراء ابو القاسم الطبيب Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 05 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Using of 2-Aminothiazole Diazotised in Spectrophotometric Estimation of Cefadroxil in Dosage <p>A sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was proposed to estimate cefadroxil in pure and capsule form. The colored product was achieved in two steps, the first step included diazotization of 2-aminothiazole with acidic NaNO2 at 0-5°C and the second step included coupling of diazotization 2-aminothiazole with cefadroxil, the orange-colored azo dye has a maximum absorption at a wavelength of 503 nm. Beer's law was obeyed at ranging of concentrations from 1 to 12.5 µg/ml with a determination coefficient of 0.9945. A stoichiometric ratio of the reaction of diazotized 2-aminothiazole with cefadroxil was 1:1. The application for determination of cefadroxil in dosage form (capsule) via the suggested method gave accepted analytical results.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amina Daood Sulaman, Nabeel Sabeeh Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 08 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between Breakfast, BMI, Sleep, and Physical Activity with Academic Achievement Among Female Students Aged 12-16 Years Old <p>A lack of such nourishment among adolescents can lead to various degrees of malnutrition, which may have implications on their health as well as their academic achievements (1). The human brain needs Sufficient energy specifically glucose and variety of micronutrients to perform cognitive functions. The aim of the study to identify the effect of some variables such as BMI, sleep, physical activity (PA), and breakfast on academic achievements. The study was conduct from June to July 2022 on the three intermediate schools, the subjects’ only female aged from 12-16 years, and studying between 7th to 9th classes. The questionnaire data consist of 18 questions. The number of questionnaires distributed to 300 of participants and received 236 that has been 64 excluded. The 24-hours dietary recall (24HR) used in this study to provide quantitative information on individual diets. The mean age of participants was 13.89(±1.016) range from 12 to 16 years old. The result showed that underweight, overweight and obese were 27.1%, 13.6% and 4.6% respectively. The study revealed that, 55.1% of the students slept from five to eight hours, while, 30.5%, and 14.4% slept more than 8 hours and Less than 5 hours respectively. The study revealed that normal BMI represented 54.7% when compared with obese, overweight and underweight represented 4.7%, 13.6% and 27.1% respectively. This study showed that normal BMI was major cause of good academic performance compared with unhealthy nutritional status; this difference was not strongly significant relationship (p ≥ 0.2). The study showed that 65.3% had a less physical activity (PA), and had high academic achievements among participants represented 54.2%. The results of this study were students consumed breakfast represented 83.5% compared with 16.5% skipped breakfast. Skipping breakfast was associated with poor academic performance in the present study.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tawfeg A. Elhisadi, Shaima A. alshokry, Rasha F. bogeldain Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 08 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Thermal Treatment on the 5-Hydroxymethylforfural for Some Types of Honey (Sader and Zater) In the Markets of The Sabratha City <p>This study was conducted from (6/15/2020) to (1/15/2021) to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) for honey (Sader and Zater) in Sabratha, where the total of samples collected was 24 A sample including 12 Sader samples and 12 Zater samples. According to White's method, the two types of honey (Sader and Zater), which totaled 24 samples, were thermally treated through incubation at 40 ° C for 1.5 hours. which is based on UV-Vis Spectroscopy measurement at wave lengths from 284 to 336nm, and the results were compared with Libyan Standard No. 1988. Where a high HMF content was obtained at a high temperature and a longer time when heating all 24 samples by incubating the two types (Sader and Zater) and thus it was concluded that the compound HMF is affected by the action of heat with the passage of time. Where the mean and standard deviation was before thermal treatment for Sader honey (15.64 ± 5.37) and for Zater honey (16.28 ± 5.81), and for after thermal treatment for Sader honey (29.43 ± 14.46) and for Zater honey (24.30 ± 6.90).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tariq A. Ahabaal, Elhadi E. Gunbaej, Saeid K. Ogbas, Mawada O. Emdakem, Omaima S. Ebrahem Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 التحليل الجغرافي والمعماري لمظاهر التلوث البصري لطرق وشوارع مدينة القبة <p>اهتم هذا البحث بدراسة التحليل الجغرافي والمعماري لمظاهر التلوث البصري لطرق وشوارع مدينة القبة، بهدف تحديد مظاهر التلوث البصري لطرق وشوارع مدينة القبة، ومعرفة أثر التلوث البصري على طرق وشوارع مدينة القبة، ولتحقيق هذه الأهداف استخدم المنهج الوصفي والمنهج التحليلي، وبعض الأساليب العلمية، خلصت الدراسة إلى جملة من النتائج نذكر منها تعاني طرق وشوارع مدينة القبة من كافة مظاهر التلوث البصري، وأن كافة اللافتات والدعاية والاعلان في مدينة القبة لا تلتزم بشروط اقامة اللافتات والدعاية والاعلان وجميعها غير مسجلة في مراقبة اقتصاد القبة، وهذا ما يؤدي إلى التلوث البصري بمنطقة الدراسة.</p> <p>ويقترح هذا البحث الاهتمام ببرامج التوعية والإعلام الخاصة بتوضيح أهمية جمال المدن وكيفية الحفاظ عليها من التلوث بأنواعه وخاصة التلوث البصري، وتطبيق القوانين الذي تحد من التلوث البصري بمنطقة الدراسة.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> صالح خليفة إبراهيم, زهير محمد عبد العاطي Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Programmable New Algorithm to Represent e-Abacus Diagram vertically and Its Application in Industrial Products <p>The question often revolves around the extent to which the fields of mathematics can be applied, and is it possible to benefit from them in our lives? We try to provide direct answers to some of them, while we are unable to provide answers to other areas. However, in this work we will present a new vision different from everything that was presented on the subject of the e-abacus diagram; by using a vertical reading which is not previously used for any partition instead of the horizontal, where the works of each Hann and Thomas, Mukai and recently Kirani; each separately, in finding mathematical relationships with cotton and industrial products inspired us to find a link more than Wonderful, it will be useful in increasing production or the possibility of presenting one or more models for design through this diagram.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ammar Seddiq Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study of HBV and HCV among the Libyan population in Bani Waleed City, Libya <p>Hepatitis viral infection is an important burden for healthcare services worldwide. The incidence of HBV and HCV differ between different countries, and even within regions of the same country. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of viral infection (HBV and HCV) among the Libyan population in Bani Waleed city. The study is cross-sectional and analyzed the incidence of HBV and HCV in Bani Waleed City during the period from 2014 to 2020. 239 cases of viral hepatitis were examined and identified over the study period. The frequency of HBV</p> <p>and HCV was 67.36% and 32.64% respectively, whereas the frequency of co-infection was found to be 3.77%. The results illustrated that the infection rate in males at 53.97% and it was slightly higher than in females 49.79% among age groups between 15 and 75 years. To conclude, the study showed that the prevalence of viral hepatitis in Bani Waleed city is not high, however, further studies are needed to establish the spread ratio in the society.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Zahrah M. Eisay, Samira D. Ameigal, Mostafa M. Abdoarrahem, Salheen Grimida, Ahmed. A. Ageel, Hamza Khalifa Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 20 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Self-Medication Practices among College Students of Medical Technology, Derna, Libya: A Cross-Sectional Survey Based Study <p>Self-medication is the practice of using medications to treat symptoms or illnesses that have been self-diagnosed without consulting a doctor. Despite its contribution to lessening the demand for medical services, it carries a number of health concerns for individuals who use it. Research on this subject revealed that students in the health sciences continued to self-medicate and advocate for it in public. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-medication and investigate factors associated with it. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out to identify self-medication among undergraduate students at the College of Medical Technology, Derna, Libya. The data were collected and analyzed for counts and percentages. The study revealed that 64.72% of students reported self-medication practices in the preceding year. Moreover, self-medication practice was found more frequently in female students as compared to male students. Headache was the most frequently reported illness; commonly used drugs were antipyretics and analgesics; and the reason quoted was the disease's ease of prevention and cure. This study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among college students. There is a dire need to make students aware of the pros and cons of self-medication in order to ensure safe usage of medicines</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hafed Idris Zaatout, Reem Idris Zaatout Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 20 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Different Purging Gases on Weld Geometry and Mechanical Properties of 304L Stainless Steel Using GTAW Technique <p>Stainless steel is used in many applications due to its resistance to corrosion. When welding austenitic stainless steel, the weld seam is exposed to heat and air, which causes oxidation.&nbsp; Purging is an important step to obtain high quality and prevent oxidation and thus avoiding discoloration and welding under bead discontinuities. The right purging gas is essential for getting the best results. The purpose of this study is to determine how different purging gases, such as pure nitrogen, pure argon, and a mixture of 26% N2, 4% Co2, and 70% He, affect the mechanical properties of 304 L austenitic stainless steel welds, including their tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness. The results of this study show that as no significant differences in properties have been found, it may be concluded that all named gases can be used as purging gases in the welding of austenitic stainless steels.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Taher Abani, Azaldin Alhaj Kozam, Khaled Gewa, Mohamed Saraj, Hesham Eshabani Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 22 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Fuzzy Future: Embracing the Potential of Fuzzy Functions <p>Most of the tools we've used in the past for formal modeling, reasoning, and computing are clear, predictable, and precise. By crisp, we mean that the answer is either yes or no, not more or less. In traditional dual logic, for example, a statement can either be true or false but not both. In set theory, an element either belongs to a set or it doesn't. In optimization, a solution is either possible or it isn't. Precision means that the parameters of a model exactly represent either how we see the phenomenon being modeled or how the real system being modeled works. Most of the time, precision also means that the model is clear or that it has no ambiguities.</p> <p>This study mostly talks about: 1) a generalized treatment of fuzzy sets of type n, where n is an integer greater than or equal to 1, with an example, mathematical discussions, and real-life interpretations of the given mathematical concepts; 2) the potentials and links between fuzzy logic and probability logic that haven't been talked about in one document; and 3) the representation of random and fuzzy uncertainties and ambiguities that come up in data-driven systems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Omalkhear Salem Blebalu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 حصر ودراسة لبعض الأنواع النباتية الحولية داخل مدينة الزنتان <p>أجريت هذه الدراسة خلال شهري فبراير ومارس سنة 2023 داخل مخطط مدينة الزنتان، حيث تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى معرفة وتصنيف النباتات الحولية وحصرها وخاصةً النباتات التي تلعب دورًا مهمًا في التوازن البيئي والأن تتعرض للنمو العمراني من بناء ورصف طرق ومسح أجزاء منها مما يؤدي إلى انقراضها واتلاف أجزاء منها. ثم حصر (56) نوعاً من النباتات الحولية النامية طبيعيًا تنتمي هذه الأنواع إلى (45) جنساً موزعة على (22) فصيلة، كما بينت النتائج أشكال الحياة لأنواع متواجدة بمنطقة الدراسة، حيث كان عدد النباتات فوق السطحية (3) بنسبة مئوية (5.3%) وعدد النباتات الأرضية (1) وبنسبة (1.8%) وعدد النباتات شبة الأرضية (10) أنواع وبنسبة (17.9%) بينما كان أكبر عدد هو النباتات الموسمية ( (Therophytes، حيث بلغت (35) نوعًا، وبنسبة مئوية بلغت ) 62.5%)، وبناءً على عدد الأنواع النباتية تم حصر أربع فصائل سائدة في منطقة الدراسة وهي الفصيلة النجمية (Asteraceae) الأكثر تواجدًا حيث بلغ عدد الأنواع التابعة لها (13) نوعًا وتليها الفصيلة الصليبية (Brassicaceae) متمثلة في (8) أنواع ثم الفصيلة النجيلية Poaceae)) التي تمثلها (6) أنواع من النباتات الحولية تليها الفصيلة البقولية (Faboidceae) التي تمثلها (5) أنواع، كما وجد أن النباتات المعمرة تمثيل(13نوع)، والنباتات الحولية تمثيل (43نوع)، وعند تحليل النمط الجغرافي لنباتات المنطقة وجد أن معظمها تتبع مناخ البحر المتوسط.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> د. عمر الطاهر عمر الهلاك Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 05 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 On TNC-Rings <p>This paper is a continuation of study rings relative to clean ring, where we study the concepts of 2-nil clean rings TN-Clear Ring (TNC-ring) of a noncommutative ring, which introduced by Chen and Sheibani. These rings of ours naturally generalize the nil -clean rings. we show that, if &nbsp;is TNC - element, then &nbsp;is nilpotent and , where &nbsp;and , such that; , when every two pair of idempotent elements are orthogonal, and we determine condition under which the TNC-ring is strongly -Regular and we show that, if &nbsp;is commutative local ring and &nbsp;is maximal ideal. Then &nbsp;is TNC-ring if .</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zubayda M. Ibraheem, Fedaa A. Nayyef Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Adropin Levels in the Serum of Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients and their Relationship to Oxidative Stress <p>Background: Adropin, a peptide hormone translated from energy Homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to investigate serum adropin level of type2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, especially in obese patients, finding the relationship between oxidative stress and adropin levels. This study consisted of 30 patients with 30 healthy people; their ages ranged from (30-65) year of both sexes (12) females and (18) males for each patients and healthy peoples. The patients with T2DM showed significantly lower serum adropin levels and glutathione (GSH) concentration than those in healthy people. At the same time, glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxynitrite, and total lipids were higher concentrations in patients with T2DM than healthy people.&nbsp; It was concluded that the levels of adropin are inversely proportional to the concentration of glucose in the blood and positively correlated with GSH, MDA, peroxynitrite, total lipids, and body mass index.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Layla A. Mustaf Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modelling the Optical Band Gap Energy of Undoped ZnO Thin Films by Supervised Machine Learning Methods <p>Recently, machine learning (ML) methods are growing as one of the most powerful techniques in scientific research and technological applications. Herein, artificial neural networks (ANNs) as novel predictive ML techniques were built to predict the optical band gap energy of undoped ZnO thin films. The proposed multilayer perceptron neural network methods include the scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and the gradient descent (GD) with momentum and learning rate optimization coefficients.</p> <p>The two suggested techniques were trained, tested, and validated with empirical data sets, by selecting the temperature of the substrate and the precursor molarity of ZnO solution as input parameters as well as the band gap energy as a response parameter. Furthermore, the simulated findings of ANN models were compared to the multiple linear regression (MLR) model and then the fitness and accuracy of those models were evaluated by different statistical metrics including the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and regression coefficients. Based on the results, SCG-ANN and GD-ANN models show high prediction accuracy with RMSE of 0.055 and 0.064 for testing data, respectively, whilst MLR analysis showed poor prediction accuracy with RMSE of 0.080 and R<sup>2 </sup>of 0.063. Additionally, the simulated output of these proposed ANNs models is in good agreement with the empirical datasets, which indicates high performance of SCG-ANN and GD-ANN models than the MLR model</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maryam Akhwater Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Development of a New Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Solving an Unconstrained Nonlinear Optimization Problem <p>This article develops a new conjugate gradient algorithm in a scaled conjugate gradient field. The proposal depends on the following algorithms: Quasi-Newton and classical conjugate gradient. Under certain assumptions, the developed algorithm satisfies the descent direction and global convergence property. Additionally, the hybrid scaled gradient algorithm is involved in the new direction. Compared to the classical algorithm, the numerical outcomes demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm in tackling unconstrained nonlinear optimization problems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Suaad Madhat Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Investigation of a Gasoline-Charged Heat Pipe Solar Water Heater <p>An experimental investigation was conducted under actual weather conditions at Higher Institute for Sciences and Technology Altmimi in Libya located at 32.24°N latitude and 23.17°E longitude.</p> <p>The solar complex is designed, manufactured, and assembled with the effect of thermal pipes. The thermal tube is integrated into Flat sucking absorbs heat from solar radiation and this part is considered an evaporator, the other side of the Heat tube is an intense part that is inserted into the water tank, gasoline was selected as a charged work fluid in the copper pipe due to its availability in the local market.</p> <p>Temperatures were measured in the assembly's absorption board and water temperature in the storage tank and instantaneous efficiency every hour. We noticed that the solar system started heating up the water when it reached a degree.</p> <p>The flat temperature is 80<sup>O</sup>C, which is the boiling temperature of the gasoline, and the maximum temperature of water reached Instantaneous efficiency is about 46 ° C 23% respectively.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ali J. S. Alrafad, Ali F. Ali Fadiel, Karima A. S. Elhabib Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of the Hydrological Functioning of the Oued Reghaya Watershed in the Context of Climate Change (Tensift, Morocco) <p>From global to local, climate change has become a political, social, and major problem for the 21st century [1]. &nbsp;Through several studies of future climate projections, Morocco has been exposed to a series of dry periods, making it vulnerable to climate change [2]. The Reghaya sub-basin is located in the High Atlas of Marrakech; it covers an area of 306 km2 and is considered one of the most important sub-basins of the Oued Tensift. Although the watershed is receiving rainfall and snowfall at high altitudes, the study basin is experiencing very frequent hydrological disturbances. In this sense, we have chosen to study the flows recorded by the Tahanaout hydrometric station, located downstream of the watershed, to extract the hydrological cycles (low and high water) using the determination of the monthly flow coefficient. The hydrometric study of the Oued Reghaya watershed, shows that the flows recorded by the station of Tahanaout have a significant temporal variation. Generally, low water periods are marked in the summer and autumn months, whereas high water periods are marked in the winter and spring months. This work shows that the hydrological regime of the Oued Reghaya watershed is rainy, which makes it vulnerable to events</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Choukri Bahija, Benchattou Abdelmoumen, Ourabit Souad, El Ghachi Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 06 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison Between Ultrasound Imaging and Mammogram Based on the Influence of Filter Materials on the Quality of Digital X Mammography <p>Diagnosis of cancer with the regular mammogram may be unreliable in nevertheless many cases since this mammogram may be unable to detect early tumors in many mammary glands. Digital mammogram is a modern technique that attempts to increase the accuracy of tumor detection. It can also be added to the magnetic resonance imaging. The digital mammogram can depict tumors in the mammary glands, which involve injection of intravenous dye while the patient is photographed with a series of mammography images that shows the flow of dye over time. It is based on the principle that fast-growing tumor’s need to increase the supply of blood to support their growth. The formula accumulates in such regions, so the digital mammogram provides therefore, a method of imaging based on the distribution of dye in the breast tissue, but it is still a two-dimensional technique. Although breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used as an additional method to digital mammography in patients with high density mammary glands or non- homogenous tissue with ultrasound waves or both, and preoperative screening for women with breast cancer, it looks like the routine use of breast magnetic resonance imaging is unnecessary.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fathya Shabek Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 08 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of the Possibility Integrating the Solar System into the Libyan Railway Transportation <p>This study of the possibility of integrating clean energy into the Libyan railway transport system using the integration of photovoltaic cells provides the potential for electric power, whether in the development of transit trade or the production of renewable electric energy near the points of electricity consumption. In Libya, for example, by integrating photovoltaic cells at stations, up to 100% of the electricity demand at railway stations can be covered, and the surplus will support the public electricity grid. Political support (for buildings in integrated photovoltaic plants) BSIPV will contribute to the development of transit trade in Libya. This study suggests the exploitation of solar systems in the railway transport system and the distribution of renewable energy sources along the railway lines in Libya, which is a link between Africa and Europe. And I will propose innovative ideas that achieve integration between railway transportation and solar energy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ibrahim Imbayah, Abdussalam Ali Ahmed, Abdulgader Alsharif, Mohamed Mohamed Khaleel, Ahmed Alarga Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 12 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Muscles Pain Post General Anesthesia for Patients Who Inductions Succemethenium <p>The aim is to Evaluation the Muscle Pain post general anesthesia for patients who induction succemethenium, Material, and Methods: The design of the study is descriptive, using a convenience sample of twenty diabetic patients (20) who were going to Operation Theater.&nbsp; Patients included in this study have the following criteria: 1. Be alert and be able to communicate verbally. 2. They are induction suxamethonium, Result: surgery, (27.8%) of patients went to the O.T. for cesarean section and cholecystectomy, respectively. Hysterectomy and laparotomy had the same percentage (11.1%). Just three patients went to the O.T. for an appendectomy. In relation to the duration of surgery, exactly one-half of the studied sample took two hours to finish the surgery, while just two patients consumed one hour, on the other hand, more than one-tenth of eighteen patients needed three hours to finish the surgery. Two-thirds (61.1%) of patients were administered ketamine as induction, and a majority (1889.9%) of patients were administered thiopental. While the majority (88.9%) of all the studied patients were administered the protocol.&nbsp; All patients were administered N2O and muscle relaxants as maintenance; one-half (50.0%) of patients were given ISO. of temperature; 72% of patients had a normal temperature at the first hour of surgery, and at the end of the second hour, the temperature was falling between 34 and 36 c. In the third hour, the percentage is still as in the second hour, Conclusion is that sincere efforts are required to find the efficacy of a technique that could significantly reduce the undesirable side effects of succinylcholine in order to curtail the valuable hospital costs being spent on the health of the patients in our poor country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khalid Salih Omar Almismary, Najah Ahmeda Ibrahim Husayn Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of PID Parameters Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Ball and Beam System <p>This paper applies Genetics Algorithms (GA) for tuning PID controller of ball and beam system. PID controller is used to control the output position of the system. A process model of the ball and beam system is defined based on its mathematical model. Using this model, an offline PID parameters optimization based on GA is done. The chromosome in GA represents PID parameters namely proportional gain (Kp), integral gain (Ki), and derivative gain (Kd). The objective functions are settling time and overshoot. The experimental results show that the step response of this GA-based PID controller has superior performance than it using PSO and trial and error.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahseen Naser Aldeeb, Abdulgani Albagul, Abdussalam Ali Ahmed, Rajab Algheetah Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Field Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Changing the Type of Anthelmintic on Nematodes in Sheep in the Western Area of Libya <p>The present experimental work was carried out at the Research Laboratory belonging to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, University of Zawia, on Mars in 2023. Twenty-five fecal samples were collected from animals in West Zawia, Assabiriyah, Libya, and sent to the lab for examination. The anthelmintics used in this experiment were Albendazole 2.5%, Ivermectin 0.8%, and Levamisole 2.5%, and all were in drench formulation. The EPG values (Mean ± SD) pre-treatment of the control group was 675± 237.56 on day 0, and the highest EPG value was 1048± 144.77, on day 14, while the EPG values (Mean ± SD) in the post-treatment groups on day 14 were 23± 11.14, 35± 19.52, 185± 61.58, and 385± 161.48 respectively, which was higher than the pre-treatment group 1048± 144.77at day 14. The efficacy of three antihelmintic was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than Ivomec or Albendazole alone. The EPG values (Mean ± SD) in sheep of a group (2) on days 3, 7, and 14, were 300± 45.91, 73± 33.27, and 23± 11.14 respectively. The highest EPG values (Mean ± SD) were in group 5 (G5) which was treated with Ivomec on all day of the experiment, and the lowest EPG values (Mean ± SD) was in group 2 which was treated with Albendazole on day 0, Levamisole at day 3, and Ivomec at day 7, respectively. The study showed that changing the type of drug at different stages of the treatment days gives significant results in reducing the number of nematode eggs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asem Ramadan Amar Mohamed, Abdulwahid Mohammed Almahdi Sirtiyah Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 استخدام التحليل العاملي الاستكشافي والتحليل العنقودي في تصنيف العوامل المؤثرة على تدني مستوى طلبة التعليم المتوسط من وجهة نظر المُعلمين (دراسة تطبيقية داخل مدارس اجدابيا الثانوية) <p>يهدف هذا البحث إلى إمكانية تطبيق استخدام التحليل العاملي الاستكشافي (Exploratory factor analysis) &nbsp;بطريقة المكونات الرئيسية (Principal Component Analysis) &nbsp;لاستخراج العوامل المؤثرة على تدني مستوى طلبة التعليم المتوسط (الثانوي), كما يهدف إلى تطبيق التحليل العنقودي (Cluster Analysis) لتحديد العوامل المؤثرة على تدني مستوى طلبة التعليم المتوسط (الثانوي) باستخدام الطريقة الهرمية(Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) ، وقد اعتمد البحث على وجهة نظر المعلمين, حيث إنهم يمثلون مجتمع الدراسة وذلك عن طريق استبانة معدة لهذا والتي طبقت على 176 مُعّلم من مدارس التعليم المتوسط في مدينة اجدابيا، وقد توصل البحث إلى عدة نتائج منها عدة نتائج منها: من خلال التحليل العاملي تبين أن العوامل المؤثرة في تدني مستوى التحصيل يمكن استخلاصها في خمسة عوامل رئيسية وهي: (العوامل البيئية، العوامل الذاتية، العوامل النفسية، العوامل التعليمية، العوامل التربوية)،وعند استخدام التحليل العنقودي تم حساب مصفوفة القرابة كانت أقرب مسافة بين المتغيرين بين العوامل التعليمية والعوامل التربوية .</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ايمان موسى فرج الزوي Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Analysis of Propagation Models for WiMAX Network <p>At present, became the joint action in worldwide about access Microwave (WiMAX) technology, also became more popular and receive growing acceptance as a wireless broadband access system (BWA). WiMAX can success at line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) cases that working below 11GHz frequency. However, path loss calculation or estimation is so important criteria to improve the WiMAX network performance. There are many of pr6+opagation models (e.g., COST 231 HATA Model, Hata Mode which can estimate of path loss. This paper we will analysis and compare between three of propagation models (COST 231 HATA, ECC-33, HATA) in various receiver antenna heights (3m, 6m, 10m) in urban areas. Results show that the ECC-33 model is the best compare with HATA model and COST 231 HATA model.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Milud Moftah Mohamed Daw, Mohammed Awadh Ben-Mubarak Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Electric Vehicle Impact on the Sustainable Development Goals Considering Renewable Energy Sources Integration <p>An Electric Vehicle (EV) is considered as the solution for environmental limitation by integrating alternative resources. Besides, traditional vehicles are running against the Sustainable development goals that making a negative impact which can be overcome. This paper focus on the impacts on Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) and EV integration for meeting sustainable development goals such as Sustainable Developments Goal (SDG7) and Climate Action Goal (CAG13) by integrating EV and PV. The aforementioned sustainable developments Goals can be obtained by strategizing methos using Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy (RB-EMS) when integrating RESs into the proposed system. Thus, this study assists to measure the use of alternative sources as discussed in the result section in order to reduce the cost and emission and meet sustainable development goals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abdussalam Ali Ahmed, Mahmod Gomah Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 28 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000